The Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse

Sex Offender Research

What follows is some of the most representative research on sex offenders and sex offender policies. Most articles are dated 2008 or newer, save for one meta-analysis that was done in 1998. Following each citation is a brief description.

Please be aware that for some articles, only the abstract is available without paying a fee or being a member of an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. For some articles, a full text PDF is linked in the description. There are many services like Mendeley that will recommend you similar research if you are doing an academic paper or study on the subject.


This study is an evaluation of sex offender management policies including GPS monitoring, civil commitment, community notification, registration, and restrictions on residency, internet, and others. This article looks at the consequences of these policies, and suggests that the effectiveness of these policies is in question and may do more harm.

This study analyzes the rates of child sexual abuse, looking at data from 67,307 sex offenses and 67,045 victims on and around Halloween, finding no significant increase or decrease when compared to the rest of the year. The full text of this study is available here.

This study analyzed the characteristics of children who sexually victimize other children, noting the average ages involved, proportion of crimes perpetrated by juveniles (35.6% of sex offenses against minors are perpetrated by juveniles), and recidivism statistics.

This is an older analysis looking at 61 recidivism studies, and looks at the differences between recidivism between rapists and child molesters. They found a sexual recidivism rate (overall) of 13.4%, which was 18.9% for rapists and 12.7% for child molesters; A nonsexual violence recidivism rate (overall) of 12.2%, which was 22.1% for rapists and 9.9% for child molesters; Additionally a general (any crime) recidivism rate (overall) of 36.3%, which was 46.2% for rapists and 36.9% for child molesters.

This is a meta-analysis of 118 different studies with a total sample size of 45,398 sex offenders across 16 countries. They found an average sexual recidivism rate of 11.5%, a violent and sexual crime recidivism rate of 19.5%, and a general recidivism rate of 33.2%.

This study looks at background literature and looks at the effects of residency restrictions in Michigan and Missouri, concluding that residency restrictions have little effect on recidivism. They also noted that sex offenders under restriction tended to live in more disadvantaged areas, suggesting that restrictions hinder successful re-entry.

This study analyzed the degree to which the static-99r risk assessment tool accurately predicts the risk level of sex offenders. They found that the risk assessment works well in differentiating recidivists and non-recidivists. It is valid to conclude that the static-99r risk assessment could be more widely used to differentiate offenders who are likely to pose future risks from those who are not, and place heavier restrictions on those likely to reoffend rather than a blanket restriction.

This study analyzes a survey done on 584 family members of registered sex offenders, and noted financial hardships, employment problems, housing disruption, threats and harassment, and mental health issues such as anxiety and depression. Full text of this study is available here.

This article discusses whether registration and notification have an effect on crime and recidivism. They claim that notification deters non-registered sex offenders, but increases the recidivism rate of registered offenders.

This study was a time-series analysis looking at 21 years of arrest data in New York, categorizing arrestees into several categories, determining that 5% of arrests were of registered sex offenders or those with prior sex offenses on their record, and 95% of arrests were of those new to the criminal justice system. The full text of this study is available here.

This report discussed a wide variety of topics, including sex offender recidivism, treatment and risk assessment, SORN policies, and some of the research around these topics. The first two pages give a broad overview of their findings, among which is the ineffectiveness of SORN in research.

This analysis looked at the efficacy of laws that monitor and supervise sex offenders as compared to other countries. Topics include residence restrictions, internet registries, GPS monitoring, and civil commitment. The full text of this article is available here.

This public policy brief looked at a wide variety of studies, as well as general statistics about sex offenders. They conclude that residency restrictions are ineffective at preventing sexual crimes, and that more effective policies are needed to prevent sexual crime. 

This study analyzed crime trends prior to, during, and after the implementation of Megan’s Law (notification) in New Jersey. The findings were astounding: The greatest rate of sex crime decline happened prior to implementing Megan’s Law, among many others. Despite an overall cost of $3.9 million, Megan’s Law did not appear to have a significant effect at deterring or preventing sexual crime.

By using this site, you agree to its terms of service and privacy policy

Please read our terms of use ( and privacy policy ( Indicate that you have read and understood them, or wish to be taken elsewhere below. By clicking yes, you indicate you agree to be bound by our terms, and are at least 13 years of age.

Terms of Service

By using this site and its affiliates, and, you agree to the following terms and conditions, as well as the privacy policy:

  • If you do not agree with these terms of use, do not use this site.
  • If you are under 13 years of age, do not use this site.
  • If you are a researcher or host research articles, and you come across a full-text article that has been restricted to purchasing, use the contact form to identify the article. Please indicate which page you found it on, your credentials, and what organization you represent. Any full-text article was originally found and downloaded for free from the sites that host such research. TNF 13 does not have privileged access to any periodicals or educational host sites.
  • This site uses “cookies” which are stored in your computer and assist with providing relevant information to you and other users of this site. If you do not wish to have cookies stored on your computer, you may find out more information regarding how to do that here. If you are unfamiliar with cookies, see here. If you take no action regarding cookies and continue to use this site, you agree to this site’s use of cookies.
  • You hereby acknowledge that the information on this site is to get help to those who may need it, and will not use anything from this site to stalk, harass, bully, insult, threaten, label, defame, or otherwise cause intentional harm to anyone.
  • You hereby acknowledge that any reliance upon any materials shall be at your sole risk. If you become aware of an error, you are encouraged to use the contact form and report it, along with the source for your correction. This site reserves the right, in its sole discretion and without any obligation, to make aesthetic improvements to or correct any factual, spelling, or hyperlink errors or omissions in any portion of the materials contained herein. The information held on this site does not constitute professional counseling or guidance.
  • This site does not accept liability for any kind of damages or consequential damages arising from the use or loss of use from this site.
  • This site will never suggest that you keep knowledge of any crime from law enforcement professionals, and this site is not responsible if you choose to withhold that information. If you submit information through this site or the blog that indicates a crime has been committed, or you suspect one has occurred, it will be reported to law enforcement.
  • You hereby acknowledge that your use of this site will be in keeping with the laws in your area, and that your use will not infringe on the rights of or restrict the use of this site to others. You agree not to use the information on this site to stalk, harass, or otherwise cause distress to others, and you agree not to interfere with the flow of information on this site.
  • The point of this site is not to give any kind of legal, medical, educational, mental health, or other kinds of advice. This is an academically-oriented resource site intended to bring in information from multiple sources for ease of use. If you have attractions, thoughts, or feelings that you are concerned about, please get yourself to a mental health professional that specializes in that area, and do not rely solely on the information contained in this site. I will never encourage you to break the law or any kind of legal requirements you have, and I am not responsible if you do.
  • Should you seek mental health help for any reason, you are hereby notified that a mental health provider may be required to report to law enforcement under circumstances specific to that provider and the location they are in. These are called “mandatory reporting laws”: These laws vary by location, and you are responsible for knowing what they are and how they affect your situation.
  • The research and information covered in this site is open for discussion, and in no way breaches or breaks the boundaries of the law in any state of the United States of America where I live.
  • I am not a mental health professional nor do I claim to have any formal medical background. I am not liable, either expressly or in an implied manner, nor claim any responsibility for any emotional or physical problems that may occur directly or indirectly from reading this site.
  • TNF 13 is the author of “The Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse” blog and site. TNF 13 is its own entity, and “The Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse” is not affiliated with any organization, nor is TNF 13 a spokesperson any organization named or linked in both sites. TNF 13 references materials from a variety of sources for ease of access and claims no responsibility for external material. The existence of any links or name mentions do not constitute an endorsement by TNF 13 of that organization or individual’s views or activities.

Mental Health Warnings And Disclaimers

  • This is an informational site. The resources made available by this website are general in nature, and provided for informational purposes only. They are the opinions of a non-professional. This site should not be used to replace the specialized training and professional judgment of a health care or mental health care professional.
  • This site cannot be held responsible for the use of the information provided. Please always consult a physician or a trained mental health professional before making any decision regarding treatment of yourself or others.
  • Self-help information and information from the internet is useful, but it is not a substitute for professional advice. If you are currently in treatment or in therapy, please consult your therapist, psychiatrist or mental health professional before you use any of the information contained herein.
  • This website and its content (including any uploaded information) is for informational purposes only and is not intended to replace or substitute for any professional, medical, legal, or any other advice. In addition, this site makes no representations or warranties and expressly disclaims any and all liability concerning any treatment or action by any person following the information offered or provided within or through the website. If you have specific concerns or find yourself in a situation in which you require professional or medical advice, you should consult with an appropriately trained and qualified specialist.
  • All information is intended only to help you cooperate with your doctor, in your efforts toward desirable sexual health. Only you and your doctor can determine what is right for you.
  • All information is generalized, presented for informational purposes only, not medical advice, and presented “as is” without warranty or guarantee of any kind.

Privacy Policy

TNF 13/Timothy N. Fury operates the website and the blogs and, which provides free resources, discussion points, and non-expert advice into preventing sexual abuse before it can happen, herein collectively referred to as “Service”.

This page is used to inform website and blog visitors regarding our policies with the collection, use, and disclosure of Personal Information if anyone decides to use our Service.

If you choose to use our Service, then you agree to the collection and use of information as outlined by this policy. The Personal Information that we collect are used for providing and improving the Service. We will not use or share your information with anyone except as described in this Privacy Policy.

The terms used in this Privacy Policy have the same meanings as in our Terms and Conditions, which is accessible at, unless otherwise defined in this Privacy Policy.

Information Collection and Use

For a better experience while using our Service, you have the option on the contact pages of providing us with certain personally identifiable information, including but not limited to your name, email address, news organization, and whatever information you choose to provide. The information that we collect will be used to contact and identify you, but will be kept confidential UNLESS:

  • You indicate a crime has been committed that has not been reported to law enforcement
  • You indicate that you suspect a crime has been committed, and has not been reported to law enforcement
  • We suspect a crime has been committed

Log Data

We want to inform you that whenever you visit our Service, third-party services (including but not limited to: Google Analytics, Cloudfare, Twitter, Facebook) collect information that your browser sends to us that is called Log Data. This Log Data may include information such as your computer’s Internet Protocol (“IP”) address, browser version, pages of our Service that you visit, the time and date of your visit, the time spent on those pages, and other statistics intended to improve the services available on the site.


Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Service Providers

We may employ third-party companies (i.e., Cloudfare, Google Analytics, Twitter, Facebook) due to the following reasons:

  • To facilitate our Service
  • To advertise this website on other domains
  • To provide the Service on our behalf
  • To perform Service-related services
  • To assist us in analyzing how our Service is used.

We want to inform our Service users that these third parties have access to your Personal Information. The reason is to perform the tasks assigned to them on our behalf. However, they are obligated not to disclose or use the information for any other purpose.


We value your trust in providing us your Personal Information, thus we are striving to use responsible means of protecting it. Always remember that no method of transmission over the internet, or method of electronic storage is 100% secure and reliable, and we cannot guarantee its absolute security.

A lot could be said about anonymity and the internet, and there are many guides on this. It is your responsibility, if anonymity and privacy are a concern to you, to use services and products that address those concerns.

Links to Other Sites

Our Service may contain links to other sites. If you click on a third-party link, you will be directed to that site. Note that these external sites are not operated by us. Therefore, we strongly advise you to review the Privacy Policy of these websites, read more. We have no control over, and assume no responsibility for the content, privacy policies, or practices of any third-party sites or services.

Children’s Privacy

Our Services do not address anyone under the age of 13. We do not knowingly collect personal identifiable information from children under 13. In the case we discover that a child under 13 has provided us with personal information, we immediately delete this from our servers. If you are a parent or guardian and you are aware that your child has provided us with personal information, please contact us so that we will be able to delete the appropriate data.

Changes to this Privacy Policy

We may update our Privacy Policy from time to time. Thus, we advise you to review this page periodically for any changes. We will notify you of any changes by posting the new Privacy Policy on this page. These changes are effective immediately, after they are posted on this page.

Contact Us

If you have any questions or suggestions about our Privacy Policy, do not hesitate to contact us.

  • Readers are cautioned not to rely on this information as medical advice and to consult a qualified mental health professional other appropriate professional to address their specific needs or circumstances.
  • Please seek immediate professional help:
  • If you have thoughts of harming or killing yourself or others
    • If you are severely disabled and are unable to care for yourself or those in your care
    • If you are abusing drugs or alcohol, or have an addiction
    • If you or someone else is in any danger of harm
    • If you have been diagnosed with a mental health disorder or suspect you have one
    • If you or a loved one are in need of an intervention